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Course programme KOI7021

Internationalisation, Multiculturalism and the Challenges for Business Management.

Course KOI7021 Tallinn University
Prof. Amado Alarcón. Universitat Rovira i Virgili

Session 1. Business, informationalisation and internationalisation
1.1. Late Capitalism and New Economy
1.2. Informationalisation and Internationalisation.
1.3. Language and Productivity
1.4. Project discussion: The Longlife Learning Programme (k2).

Session 2. Language Management Strategies.
2.1. Managing Standardization and Authenticity.
2.2. Language Planning and Language Choice in firms.
2.3. European projects II: ELAN, CELAN, PIMLICO, Language mean business, Language Rich Europe
2.4. Discussion

Session 3. Multilingual policies. Multilinational companies vs SME.
3.1. Multinational vs SME. Ethnocentric companies, geocentric and industrial clusters
3.2. Efficiency and Efficacy in communication.
3.3. Appendix: Society, language and inequalites: Migrants in Catalonia.
3.4. Cases & Projects
Resources _needs_password


Alarcón, A. (2007)  Informationalism, globalisation and trilingualism. An analysis of the statistics on Linguistic Practices in SME Companies in Catalonia. Noves Sl(Primavera-estiu),  1-13.   
Alarcón, Amado y Heyman, Josiah McC  (2013) “Bilingual Call Centers in the US-Mexico border: Location and Markers of explotaibility” Language in Society, 42(1) 1-21.
Boutet, J. (2012) “Language workers: emblematic figures of late capitalism” in Duchêne, A. y Heller, M. A Language in Late Capitalism. Pride and Profit. New York: Routledge: 207-229
Dhir, K.S. I Gòkè-Paríolá, A. (2002), The case for language policies in multinational corporations). Corporate Communications - An International Journal, 7(4): 241-251.
Feely. A. J. & Harzing A-W. (2003). "Language management in multinational companies", Cross Cultural Management, (10)2: 37-51.
Harzing A-W; Köster, A. i Magner, U. (2010) Babel in Business: The Language Barrier and its Solutions in HQ-Subsidiaries Relationship. Journal of World Business.
Heller, M. (2010). “The Commodication of Language” Annual Review of Anthropology 39: 101–114.
Maclean, D. (2006) Beyond English Transnational corporations and the strategic management of language in a complex multilingual business environment. Management Decision Vol. 44 No. 10, 2006:  1377-1390
Victor D.A. (2007) What is the Language of Business? Affecting Business Outcome Before you Say a Word. Proceedings of the Associations of Business Communication. Asia-Pacific Conference, Març, 27-31 2007.

Extended bibliography

CILT (2006) Full Report. ELAN: Effects on the European  Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise. (online:
Huhta, M. Tools for Planning Language Training. Guide for the development of Language Education Policies in Europe From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education. Reference Study (Language Policy Division Directorate of School, Out-of-School and Higher Education DGIV. Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
Reeves, N.; Wright, C. (1996)  "Linguistic Auditing" A Brief Introduction to Language or 'Linguistic' Auditing
Rendon, S. (2007):
The Catalan premium: language and employment in Catalonia," Journal of Population Economics, núm 20(3), pp. 669-686,  a: http://docubib.uc3m.es/WORKINGPAPERS/WE/we033410.pdf
Roberts, C. (2010): “Language Socialization in the Workplace” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 30:211-227.
Spencer-Oatey, H.i Stadler, S. (2009) The Global People competency framework: competencies for effective intercultural interaction. .

Spolsky, B. (2009). Language management
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  • A. Alarcón, A. i Heyman, J. McC (2013) “From "Spanish-Only" Cheap Labor to Stratified Bilingualism”. International Journal of the Sociology of the Language, 181..
  • B. Linguapeace (2010) Language Audit Report (peacekeeping forces) www.linguapeace.net/report/Language%20Audit%20Report.pdf
  • C. Hocking J. Barry,  Michelle Brown, Anne-Wil Harzing  (2007) Balancing Global and Local Strategic Contexts: Expatriate Knowledge Transfer, Applications and Learning within a Transnational Organization. Human Resource Management.
  • D. CILT (2005) Heathrow Talking to the World. A Language Audit. London.
  • E. See moodle.
On line resources

European Union:
Languages for business and employability
Languages for jobs
Council Resolution of 21 November 2008 on a European strategy for multilingualism, OJEC C 320 , 16/12/2008, P.1–3
Communication of 2008 on Multilingualism: an asset for Europe and a shared commitment, COM(2008) 566 http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/pdf/com/2008_0566_en.pdf

European projects

Language mean business
Language rich Europe
CILT (2006) Full Report. ELAN: Effects on the European Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise. [documento en línea]
Comisión Europea (2010). Informe sobre las estrategias de gestión lingüística y las mejores prácticas en las PYME europeas: El proyecto PIMLICO. [documento en línea]
Comisión Europea (2011). Guía lingüística para las empresas europeas. Comuníquese con éxito en sus operaciones comerciales internacionales.
The Nuffield Foundation (2000). Languages: the next generation. The final report and recommendations of The Nuffield Languages Inquiry
CELAN "Language Stratgies for Competitiveness and Employability"
Lifelong Learning Programme Languages (Key Activity 2)